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Thursday, January 23, 2014

List of Examples (Recount Text)

Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb.

Today I'm going to share some examples about Recount Text. As we know, this text is very popular in our life, Recount text may be our note, personal diary, or social activity. First what is Recount text?

Let me answer with simple one, Recount Text is a text which retells events or experiences in the past chronologically. This text describes about the writer's personal experience which truly happens in his or her life. The experience may be horror, fun, etc.

The purpose or the social function of Recount text is to retell or to inform the reader about what was happened to the writer with series of events.

 The generic structures of Recount Text:
  1. Orientation       : In orientation, the paragraph usually introduces the participants, who are being involved in the text.
  2. Events                  : Usually there are many events may be occurred in Recount text, events may be started in the first paragraph, so it is not always started in the second paragraph. The events usually started with time signals, such as; first, second, then, finally, etc.
  3. Reorientation     : It is the closure of the events. Reorientation is optional, some text may not include this. If there is, usually in the last paragraph.

The language features of Recount Text

Language features is a characteristic of a text, to make it is easily recognized, what tense is used, and so on. 
  1. Introducing the participants
  2. Using chronological conjunctions, such as; first, second, then, etc.
  3. Using action verb, such as; went, arrived, ate, jumped, etc
  4. The important one is, using simple past tense.

The examples of Recount Text:

A Day Visit to Yogyakarta

Last week, I went to Yogyakarta with my family. My father drove the car. My mother sat beside him. My sister and I sat in the back seats.

We woke up early in the morning. My father prepared the car in the garage while mother was preparing food for breakfast and some snacks for us. My sister and I packed some clothes. After everything got ready and we had our breakfast, we left the house at six o'clock.

It was about nine A.M. We arrived at Yogyakarta. First of all we visited our uncle. We stayed there for an hour. Then we went to Parangtritis beach. We got there at eleven o'clock. There were a lot of tourists because it was holiday. I saw many foreign visitors too. My parents watched us playing with sand in the beach. We did not swim and take a bath since the wave was rough. After having lunch, we went on our picnic to the museum and Malioboro shopping centre.

We drove back to Semarang at 7 o'clock and arrived home at ten. We were tired but happy.

A Bomb in Plane

I am used to travelling by air but only on one occasion I felt frightened. After taking foo, we flew low over the city. It slowly wen high to the sky.

But suddenly it turned round and flew back to the airport. An air-hostess told us to keep calm and to get off the place quietly as soon as it landed. After we landed, the police searched the plane carefully. Everybody on board was worried and we grew curious about what was happening.

Later, we learned that there was a very important person on board. Earlier, somebody told the police that there was a bomb on the plane. Fortunately, they did not find a bomb and five hours later we were able to take off again.

# 3
Last Saturday, I woke up early. I didn't get up from my bed because there was no school. Suddenly, my telephone rang. It was my friend, Fanny. She asked me to go out at 10.00 o'clock. She wanted to buy something in the traditional market. So I hopped from the bed and headed to the shower.

Finally, we were out. In the street, I saw a piece of pink paper. I took it and we read it. We were shocked, it was a voucher for a four night tour to Lombok. The expired date was that day. To our surprised, the name was Fenita and the birth date was exactly the same as Fanny, my friend, and it was also valid for two persons. My God! We were thinking that maybe the paper just fell from the sky for us.

We were hurried to the tour agency that issued the voucher. The tour agency took care of everything. We went home and still couldn't believe what was going on. Two days later we were on the Senggigi Beach, Lombok.

Well, I think that's it for Recount text, I will post more examples later. And hopefully for teachers this will help them in designing appropriate material about Recount text, and for students they can understand what is the definition and its purpose, and what are the characteristics of it.

Wassalamualaikum Wr. Wb.

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Conducting Correlational Research


Research Design

In general, a correlational study is a quantitative method of research in which you have 2 or more quantitative variables from the same group of subjects, & you are trying to determine if there is a relationship (or covariation) between the 2 variables (a similarity between them, not a difference between their means). Theoretically, any 2 quantitative variables can be correlated (for example, midterm scores & number of body piercings!) as long as you have scores on these variables from the same participants; however, it is probably a waste of time to collect & analyze data when there is little reason to think these two variables would be related to each other.

Try to have 30 or more participants; this is important to increase the validity of the research.

Your hypothesis might be that there is a positive correlation (for example, the number of hours of study & your midterm exam scores), or a negative correlation (for example, your levels of stress & your exam scores). A perfect correlation would be an r = +1.0 & -1.0, while no correlation would be r = 0. Perfect correlations would almost never occur; expect to see correlations much less than + or - 1.0. Although correlation can't prove a causal relationship, it can be used for prediction, to support a theory, to measure test-retest reliability, etc.

Data collection:

You may collect your data through testing (e.g. scores on a knowledge test (an exam or math test, etc.), or psychological tests, numerical responses on surveys & questionnaires, etc. Even archival data can be used (e.g. Kindergarten grades) as long as it is in a numerical form.

Data Analysis:

With the use of the Excel program, calculating correlations is probably the easiest data to analyze. In Excel, set up three columns: Subject #, Variable 1 (e.g. hours of study), & Variable 2 (e.g. exam scores). Then enter your data in these columns. Select a cell for the correlation to appear in & label it. Click "fx" on the toolbar at the top, then "statistical", then "Pearson". When asked, highlight in turn each of the two columns of data, click "Finish", & your correlation will appear. Charts in any statistics textbook can tell you if the correlation is significant, considering the number of participants.

You can also do graphs & scatter plots with Excel, if you would like to depict your data that way (See Chart wizard).

Presentation of your results in a Research Report:

Use the standard APA style lab report. In the Introduction, briefly review past research & theory in your topic question (e.g. summarize current research on stress & academic achievement). Use APA referencing style to cite your sources. Then in the Method section, present a general description of the group of participants (their number, mean age, gender, etc.) in the Participants section, any materials you may have used (e.g. tests, surveys, etc.) in the Materials section, & in the Procedure section, note that your general research strategy was a correlational study, & describe your methods of data collection (e.g. survey, test, etc.).

In the Results section of the report, present your correlation statistic in both a table & in words, & note whether or not it is significant. If you have more than 2 variables to correlate, present a correlational matrix, showing the correlation between each of the variables. In the following example, 4 variables were correlated in one study. The correlation between Exam scores & hours of study, for example, is r = +.67, p <.01. This indicates a significant positive relationship between the number of hours of study & subsequent exam scores.

Number of hours of study & subsequent exam scores

Hours of study    +.67*                      -                            -
Stress level           - .45*                     -.10                       -
# of Piercings      -.15                         -.2                        +.18
                           Exam Scores      Hrs of Study        Stress level

* p < .01  

 In the Discussion section, relate your results to past or current research & theory you had cited & described in the Introduction. Do note the statistical significance of your findings, & limits to their generalizability. Remember that even if you did not obtain the significant differences you had hoped to, your results are still interesting, & must be explained, with reference to other research & theory.

This article was taken from Janet Waters at Capilano University Canada US

© Janet Waters
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