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Friday, May 31, 2013

Teaching Vocabulary; Interactive Word Wall Strategy

By Galih Ariffansyah


There are many ways to teach vocabulary, one of them is by using Interactive Word Wall. Before we explore what is Interactive Word Wall, I would like to explain what is the term of vocabulary first, then what is the Interactive word wall, then how to implement the strategy.


What is vocabulary?

According to ask.com (www.answers.ask.com) Vocabulary is the group of words that a person or group of people knows how to use. Another definition according dictionary.com. Vocabulary also is a group or stock of words used in a particular way by a certain group of people regarding their language. It is simply the words of a language.

                                 
The basic component in English is vocabulary, it is because the term of vocabulary states that vocabulary is made by the agreement of group of people regarding to their language. So, in another words, vocabulary refers to a word. Word is generally a vocabulary. 

In vocabulary, there are some words which is categorized into their part of speech. For example, "She" is a noun, that is a word which is also a vocabulary. Moreover, vocabulary always has meaning, there is no vocabulary without its meaning.

In Indonesia, when learning a new language, we expose to new words. For instance, we want to know what is the meaning of 'child' in English, if we do not know the meaning, then we can not use the word. In fact, in Indonesia, learning English is obligatory. Most of the students are still unaware about English. Meanwhile, the teacher has an important role to raise the students' awareness of English, especially about their vocabulary.

 

What is Interactive Word Wall?

A word wall is literacy tool composed of an organized (typically in alphabetical order) collection of words which are displayed in large visible letters on a wall, bulletin board, or other display surface in a classroom. The word wall is designed to be an interactive tool for students or others to use, and contains an array of words that can be used during writing or reading (on Wikipedia, 2013)

The interactive word wall strategy promotes a vocabulary rich-environment where walls are alive with words. The key to implementing this strategy is interactivity. The class walls are adorned with new and interesting words that the students learn through interacting with their texts, teacher, or their peers.

To promote interaction and dialogue, around the words, it is important to keep the words relevant, that is the posted words (on the wall) should be focal point for thinking about and noticing how and when they are used. It means that when the words are poster on the wall, they can always be used on students' needs in reading or writing where the words are frequently used and appeared (Patricia Antonacci & Catherine M. O'Collaghan, 2012: 105)


There are some tips to support our interactive word walls, (Patricia Antonacci & Catherine M. O'Collaghan, 2012: 105)
  1. Incorporate the Interactive Word Wall strategy as part of the word study instructional routine. It means whenever you teach English, promote the students to always use this strategy when they have any difficulties in words 
  2. Select the display wall carefully; making sure that it is at eye level and large enough to post the words. Teachers must create the word wall bigger so students can see clearly. 
  3. Decide on how you wish to display the words, such as alphabetically or organized by themes or content areas. There are many kinds of word wall example, there are alphabetically and themes, you can see, that is the example of alphabetical word wall, and that one is the theme word wall. 
  4. Write the words legibly on oak tag or paper, demonstrating appropriate handwriting. The teachers or students write the words in an oak tag or paper in a good handwriting, so other students can understand the handwriting.        

When to Use this Strategy?

This strategy can be used before, during, or after reading. The teacher may use the word wall to introduce new vocabulary prior to reading. During the reading, students are encouraged to find words that are unfamiliar and that should be placed on the word wall to learn. After reading, the class may also be used outside reading as a review or practice, such as when the teacher asks the students to “read the wall”, then they find the unfamiliar word on the word wall and they understand the meaning. As a result, word walls are resources for students and should be used when they are looking for new and interesting words to use in their writing.

How to Implement this Strategy?

  1. Establish a purpose for using the word wall. Word walls may be used to help students learn high frequency words, or they may be used to develop vocabulary around a theme. For example, themes for word walls may include the tropical rainforest, biography, or anything you want to teach. 
  2. Select the words that are targeted for instruction. Select a few words for teaching and post them on the wall. Words on the wall need to be spelled correctly and written legibly, as students will be encouraged to use the word wall as a resource for their reading and writing. 
  3. Before reading, teach the words. Engage students in a lively discussion of the words. Teachers may decide to write a brief meaning of the word. 
  4. After reading, students may post words to the word wall. Because word walls are effective when they are interactive, teachers guide discussion of the readings to include new and interesting words that student discovered in their readings. These words, along with their meanings, may bes posted on the word wall. 
  5. Initiate activity around the word wall. For the word wall to be effective, members of the learning community must use them. The teacher plays an important role in initiating activity that leads to interactive word walls. For example, using word walls as references in finding interesting words for writing and playing word games will encourage students to make the word walls their own. 

Students with Special Needs

Students with special needs benefit from practice and repeated exposure to new vocabulary words. Have students create personal word walls that are portable. Students design their own interactive word walls from a blank file folder. Using the four sides of the folder, they draw 26 boxes, one for each letter of the alphabet. They post words from their classroom word wall on their portable word wall as well as new words they learn from their own readings. Students may be encouraged to post additional words from their readings. Words will be available to them on demand, at home and in school. (Patricia Antonacci & Catherine M. O'Collaghan, 2012: 108)


Conclusion 

By using this strategy (Interactive Word Wall strategy) the student can choose their own words that they fell unfamiliar. And they may post it on the wall for their needs (writing or reading).
High frequency words in academic text also can be highly exposed to the students by using this strategy, so they can recognize it and always remember the words. Meanwhile,  this strategy is interesting and the words always can be seen and read on the wall.  



DOWNLOAD THE SLIDE FOR THIS ARTICLE  HERE!!!!!
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Tuesday, May 14, 2013

Macam - Macam Model Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris


Hari ini saya akan mengulas tentang model - model pembelajaran yang dipakai guru dalam pengajaran di kelas.

Langsung saja, yang pertama ialah:

Examples Non Examples

Langkah - langkah:
  1. Guru mempersiapkan gambar-gambar sesuai dengan tujuan pembelajaran.
  2. Guru menempelkan gambar di papan atau ditayangkan melalui OHP/LCD.
  3. Guru memberi petunjuk dan memberi kesempatan pada siswa untuk memperhatikan/menganalisa gambar. 
  4. Melalui diskusi kelompok 2-3 orang siswa, hasil diskusi dari analisa gambar tersebut dicatat pada kertas.
  5. Tiap kelompok diberi kesempatan membacakan hasil diskusinya.
  6. Mulai dari komentar/hasil diskusi siswa, guru mulai menjelaskan materi sesuai tujuan yang ingin dicapai.
  7. Kesimpulan.

Picture and Picture

Langkah - langkah:
  1. Guru menyampaikan kompetensi yang ingin dicapai.
  2. Menyajikan materi sebagai pengantar.
  3. Guru menunjukkan/memperlihatkan gambar-gambar kegiatan berkaitan dengan materi.
  4. Guru menunjuk/memanggil siswa secara bergantian.
  5. Guru menanyakan alasan/dasar pemikiran urutan gambar tersebut.
  6. Dari alasan/urutan gambar tersebut guru memulai menanamkan konsep/materi sesuai dengan kompetensi yang ingin dicapai.
  7. Kesimpulan/rangkuman. 

 

Cooperative Script

Skrip kooperatif ialah metode belajar dimana siswa bekerja berpasangan dan bergantian secara lisan mengikhtisarkan, bagian-bagian dari materi yang dipelajari.

Langkah - langkah:
  1. Guru membagikan siswa untuk berpasangan.
  2. Guru membagikan wacana/materi tiap siswa untuk dibaca dan membuat ringkasan.
  3. Guru dan siswa menetapkan siapa yang pertama berperan sebagai pembicara dan siapa yang berperan sebagai pendengar.
  4. Pembicara membacakan ringkasannya selengkap mungkin, dengan memasukkan ide-ide pokok dalam ringkasannya. Sementara mendengar:
  5.  
    • Menyimak/mengoreksi/menunjukkan ide-ide pokok yang kurang lengkap.
    • Membantu mengingat/menghafal ide-ide pokok dengan menghubungkan materi sebelumnya atau dengan materi lainnya.
  6. Bertukar peran, semula sebagai pembicara ditukar menjadi pendengar dan sebaliknya. Serta lakukan seperti diatas.
  7. Kesimpulan siswa bersama-sama dengan guru.
  8. Penutup. 


Baiklah itulah sedikit ulasan saya tentang model-model pembelajaran yang saya ambil dari beberapa sumber, termasuk dari kuliah saya.

Selengkapnya anda dapat mengunduhnya di  sini
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Monday, May 6, 2013

Menerapkan Model Pembelajaran; Numbered Heads Together


 
A. Pendahuluan

Pertama-tama saya ingin mengucapkan banyak terima kasih kepada rekan-rekan saya yang telah membantu saya dalam menerapkan model pembelajaran Numbered Heads Together (NHT) ini di kelas PPL 1. Tidak lupa pula saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada dosen PPL 1 saya, Asmi Rusmanayanti, S.Pd. M.Sc. yang telah pertama kali mengenalkan model pembelajaran ini kepada saya. Dan dengan penuh antusias, saya mencari diberbagai media, salah satunya internet mengenai model ini. Akhirnya, dengan modal “paham”, saya langsung mempraktekannya di kelas micro teaching. Pada saat itu, saya berada di kelas Ibu Dra. Rina Listia, M.Pd.

B. Penerapan NHT di dalam kelas

Apa itu NHT ? NHT adalah suatu strategi model pembelajaran kooperatif yang menggunakan angka yang diletakkan diatas kepala dengan tujuan untuk memudahkan guru dalam mengeksplor aktifitas siswa dalam mencari, mengolah, dan melaporkan informasi dari berbagai sumber yang akhirnya dipresentasikan di depan kelas. Strategi ini pertama kali dikenalkan oleh Spencer Kagan pada tahun 1992.

Pada saat saya memakai metode ini, pertama saya membagi kelas menjadi beberapa kelompok. Masing-masing siswa dalam kelompok sengaja diberi nomor untuk memudahkan kinerjakerja kelompok, mengubah posisi kelompok, menyusun materi, mempresentasikan, dan mendapat tanggapan dari kelompok lain. Setelah itu tiap kelompok memberikan kesimpulan.

Secara sederhana dapat dijelaskan bahwa langkah-langkah yang dapat dilakukan dalam melaksanakan model ini adalah :

1.       Siswa dibagi dalam beberapa kelompok dan masing-masing siswa dalam setiap kelompoknya mendapatkan nomor urut. Pengalaman saya adalah, ketika dalam kelas PPL 1 saya membuat exercise yang didalamnya ada 5 soal, pertanyaan dimulai dengan W/H questions. Terdapat 25 siswa didalam kelas sehingga saya membagi mereka kedalam 5 grup, yang tiap grup beranggotakan 5 orang. Tiap orang ini bertanggung jawab dengan soal exercise nya.

2.      Guru memberikan tugas dan masing-masing kelompok mengerjakan permasalahannya. Tiap kelompok mendiskusikan bersama.

3.      Kelompok memutuskan jawaban yang dianggap paling benar dan memastikan setiap anggotanya mengetahui jawaban tersebut.

4.      Guru memanggil salah satu nomor secara random dan siswa yang bernomor tersebut melaporkan jawabannya. Dalam tahap ini, seluruh kelompok yang bernomor sama yang dipanggil guru harus siap. Tiap kelompok yang nomornya dipanggil memberikan jawaban mereka. Apabila tidak bisa menjawab, maka guru dapat memberikan punishment.

5.      Siswa dipersilahkan memberikan tanggapan apabila dirasa jawaban kelompok lain kurang tepat.

6.      Setelah siswa melaporkan hasil, guru mendiskusikan jawaban-jawaban yang telah dijawab siswa, dan memberi jawaban yang paling benar.

7.      Tiap kelompok memberikan kesimpulan (apabila diperlukan).

Adapun kelebihan dan kekurangan dari model pembelajaran ini, yakni:

Kelebihan

1.       Setiap murid menjadi siap semua
2.      Dapat melakukan diskusi dengan sungguh-sungguh
3.      Murid yang pandai dapat mengajari murid yang kurang pandai
4.      Terjadinya interaksi yang tinggi antara siswa dalam menjawab soal
5.      Tidak ada murid yang mendominasi dalam kelompok, karena adanya nomor yang membatasi.

Kekurangan

1.       Tidak terlalu cocok untuk jumlah siswa yang banyak karena membutuhkan waktu yang lama.
2.      Tidak semua anggota kelompok dipanggil oleh guru. Karena kemungkinan waktu yang terbatas.

C. Kesimpulan

Dari hasil pengamatan saya, dengan menerapkan model pembelajaran NHT ini, keantusiasan siswa dalam mempelajari materi guru sangat tinggi. Karena dirasa menarik dan “menegangkan’. Siswa diharuskan bertanggung jawab terhadap soal yang diberikan, sehingga memicu siswa menjadi aktif dalam menjawab. Disamping itu, dalam tiap kelompok mungkin terdapat siswa yang kurang pandai, dengan model pembelajaran ini, maka siswa yang kurang pandai dapat berdiskusi dengan siswa yang pandai, sehingga mereka dapat bersama-sama belajar.


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Friday, May 3, 2013

ADVERBS


What is an Adverb?


An adverb is a word that tells us more about a verb. It "qualifies" or "modifies" a verb (The girl sings beautifully). In the following examples, the adverb is in bold and the verb that it modifies is in italics.
  • Henry walks slowly.
  • Afterwards she smoked a cigarette.
  • Sue drives the car carefully.
But adverbs can also modify adjectives (Taufik is very clever), or even other adverbs (The task is really hard). Look at these examples:

  • Modify an adjective:
    - Galih is really handsome.
    - That was extremely kind of you.
  • Modify another adverb:
    - She drives really slowly.
    - He drives extremely fast

 Kinds of Adverb


A. Adverbs of Manner 

Adverbs of Manner tell us the manner or way in which something happens. They answer the question "how?". Adverbs of Manner mainly modify verbs.

  • He speaks slowly. (How does he speak? He speaks slowly)
  • They helped us cheerfully. (How did they help us?)
  • James Bond drives his cars fast. (How does James Bond drive his cars?)

B. Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of Place tell us the place where something happens. They answer the question "where?". Adverbs of Place mainly modify verbs.

  • Please sit here. (Where should I sit?)
  • They looked everywhere. (Where did they look?)
  • Two cars were parked outside. (Where were two cars parked.

C. Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of Time tell us something about the time that something happens. Adverbs of Time mainly modify verbs.

They can answer the question "when?":

  • He came yesterday. (When did he come?)
  • I want it now. (When do I want it?)

Or they can answer the question "how often?":

  • They deliver the newspaper daily. (How often do they deliver the newspaper?)
  • We sometimes watch a movie. (How often do we watch a movie?)

D. Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of Degree tell us the degree or extent to which something happens. They answer the question "how much?" or "to what degree?". Adverbs of Degree can modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.

  • She entirely agrees with him. (How much does she agree with him?)
  • Mary is very beautiful. (To what degree is Mary beautiful? How beautiful is Mary?)
  • He drove quite dangerously. (To what degree did he drive dangerously? How dangerously did he drive?)

Adverbs of Manner lists Here

Adverbs of Place lists Here

Adverbs of Time lists Here

Adverbs of Degree lists Here





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