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Saturday, March 23, 2013

ADJECTIVES

What is Adjective?

Okay, today I'm going to explain about "Adjective". What is adjective actually? All right, adjective is a word that describes nouns or pronouns. An adjective gives more information about the noun that goes with it (accompanies).






1. An adjective "qualifies" or "modifies" a noun.

Example: a big mouse, the tall man, a clever boy

(Look at the phrases above, mouse, man, and boy are nouns. The adjective are put before the noun).

2. Sometimes an adjective is not followed by a noun or we can say after the verb or to be.

Example:
  • The sky is blue.
  • The joke she told was so funny, I could not stop laughing all day.
  • He went crazy.
(Look, the first sentence, the adjective blue is after the to be "is". Then for the third sentence, the adjective crazy is after the verb "went").

3. We can often use two or more adjectives together

Example:
  • The beautiful young lady.
  • The smart handsome boy.
  • The perfect incredible young girl.

All right, that is about adjective. Quite simple, right?

Now, let's see the advance one:


An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.
In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives:
The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops.
Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper.
The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea.
The coal mines are dark and dank.
Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music.
A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard.
The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.
An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. In the sentence
My husband knits intricately patterned mittens.
for example, the adverb "intricately" modifies the adjective "patterned."
Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sentence
Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow.
for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles.
Grammarians also consider articles ("the," "a," "an") to be adjectives.

Possessive Adjectives

A possessive adjective ("my," "your," "his," "her," "its," "our," "their") is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences:
I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective "my" modifies "assignment" and the noun phrase "my assignment" functions as an object. Note that the possessive pronoun form "mine" is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase.
What is your phone number.
Here the possessive adjective "your" is used to modify the noun phrase "phone number"; the entire noun phrase "your phone number" is a subject complement. Note that the possessive pronoun form "yours" is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase.
The bakery sold his favourite type of bread.
In this example, the possessive adjective "his" modifies the noun phrase "favourite type of bread" and the entire noun phrase "his favourite type of bread" is the direct object of the verb "sold."
After many years, she returned to her homeland.
Here the possessive adjective "her" modifies the noun "homeland" and the noun phrase "her homeland" is the object of the preposition "to." Note also that the form "hers" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
We have lost our way in this wood.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective "our" modifies "way" and the noun phrase "our way" is the direct object of the compound verb "have lost". Note that the possessive pronoun form "ours" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents.
Here the possessive adjective "their" modifies "parents" and the noun phrase "their parents" is the object of the preposition "by." Note that the possessive pronoun form "theirs" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective "its" modifies "ball" and the noun phrase "its ball" is the object of the verb "chased." Note that "its" is the possessive adjective and "it's" is a contraction for "it is."

Demonstrative Adjectives

The demonstrative adjectives "this," "these," "that," "those," and "what" are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences:
When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books.
In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective "that" modifies the noun "cord" and the noun phrase "that cord" is the object of the preposition "over."
This apartment needs to be fumigated.
Here "this" modifies "apartment" and the noun phrase "this apartment" is the subject of the sentence.
Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these.
In the subordinate clause, "those" modifies "plates" and the noun phrase "those plates" is the object of the verb "preferred." In the independent clause, "these" is the direct object of the verb "bought."
Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun.

Interrogative Adjectives

An interrogative adjective ("which" or "what") is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstrative adjectives and possessive adjectives):
Which plants should be watered twice a week?
Like other adjectives, "which" can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this example, "which" modifies "plants" and the noun phrase "which plants" is the subject of the compound verb "should be watered":
What book are you reading?
In this sentence, "what" modifies "book" and the noun phrase "what book" is the direct object of the compound verb "are reading."

Indefinite Adjectives

An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences:
Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed.
The indefinite adjective "many" modifies the noun "people" and the noun phrase "many people" is the subject of the sentence.
I will send you any mail that arrives after you have moved to Sudbury.
The indefinite adjective "any" modifies the noun "mail" and the noun phrase "any mail" is the direct object of the compound verb "will send."
They found a few goldfish floating belly up in the swan pound.
In this example the indefinite adjective modifies the noun "goldfish" and the noun phrase is the direct object of the verb "found":
The title of Kelly's favourite game is "All dogs go to heaven."
Here the indefinite pronoun "all" modifies "dogs" and the full title is a subject complement.

*Written by Heather MacFadyen

That's the advance one, now if you want to ask something, just comment on my post below.
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Thursday, March 21, 2013

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

FORMULA:

Verbal Sentence:

(+) Subject + Verb 2 + Object/Complement
(-) Subject + Did not + Verb 1 + Object/Complement
(?) Did + Subject + Verb 1 + Object/Complement + ?

Example:

(+) John went to the market
(-) John did not go to the market
(?) Did John go to the market?


Nominal Sentence:

(+) Subject {I/he/she/it/person's name} + Was + Non Verb/Compliment
      Subject {You/we/they} + Were + Non Verb/Compliment
(-) Subject {I/he/she/it/person's name} + Was not + Non Verb/Compliment
      Subject {You/we/they} + Were not + Non Verb/Compliment
(?) Was + Subject {I/he/she/it/person's name} + Non Verb/Compliment + ?
      Was + Subject {You/we/they} + Non Verb/Compliment + ?

Example:

(+) She was happy yesterday
     They were here last night
(-) She was not happy yesterday
     They were not here last night
(?) Was she happy yesterday?
     Were they happy yesterday?

The Use of Simple Past Tense 

A. Completed Action in the Past 

 

 




Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind. 

Example:
  • They saw the accident yesterday.
  • He didn't see you last Monday.
  • Last year, he arrived at Banjarmasin

B. A Series of Completed Actions

 





We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.

Example:
  • I went to Bali, found a best place to rest, and relaxed on the beach
  • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.

C. Duration in Past

 

 

 


The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

Example:
  • I lived in Brazil for two years.
  • Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
  • They sat at the beach all day.
  • They did not stay at the party the entire time.
  • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
  • A: How long did you wait for them?
    B: We waited for one hour.

D. Habits in the Past

 

 



The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

Examples:
  • I studied French when I was a child.
  • He played the violin.
  • He didn't play the piano.
  • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
  • She worked at the movie theater after school.
  • They never went to school, they always skipped class.

E. Past Facts or Generalizations

 

 




The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."

Examples:
  • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
  • He didn't like tomatoes before.
  • Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
  • People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past. 

IMPORTANT! When-Clauses Happen First

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.
Examples:
  • When I gave her a thousand rupiahs, she delivered my question.
  • She delivered my question when I gave her a thousand rupiahs.
When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I gave her a thousand rupiahs, and then, she delivered my question. It is not important whether "when I gave her a thousand rupiahs" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she delivered my question, and then, I gave her a thousand rupiahs.
Example:
  • I gave her a thousand rupiahs when she delivered my question.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You never played football.
  • Did you never play football?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • Tom repaired the car. Active
  • The car was repaired by Tom. Passive


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